I am assuming here that the social

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I am not able to answer if we see river tolls at all, not an area I am familiar with. A bottleneck with a river may be a bit easier to get around than between two seas. If you want to get from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, you have to go past Gibraltar. But if you want to get past a point on the Mississippi, you can port your canoe, look for a side channel, etc. If they did set up a location to control a river, I would look near the exit of a drainage basin, you would get the largest amount of traffic for the least amount of effort there.

You do bring up an interesting point with canada goose jacket outlet toronto what you said about Cahokia. Cahokia is in a unique spot as it is quite close to where the Missouri meets the Mississippi and where the Ohio converges with the canada goose outlet online store Mississippi. It is essentially down the street from a huge part of Eastern North America. It is possible that Cahokia may have demanded tribute from those passing by, but thats hard to tell at a site as large as Cahokia. Are the exotic goods we see tribute or trade items? Is their even a difference?

As a side note, in Robert Hall Archaeology of the Soul, Hall touches on how calumets (peace pipes) were given to European explorers traveling along rivers like canada goose parka black friday the Mississippi as a means to ensure safe passage. Hall also describes how there are similarities we see between the use/form of the calumet and with symbolism we see associated with Middle Mississippian elites. Could this be a vestige of Middle Mississippian control of the waterways? Perhaps this was Cahokia toll system, but one played through a game of cultural telephone? Sorry to get more off topic, but your point about possible tolls enforced by Cahokia made me think of it.

To add a bit to this great summary, there are some accounts in a few pieces of Native American folklore that describe what can go canada goose clearance sale wrong should a woman on her period interact with “male” items. I believe the story I am familiar with is Ho Chunk, but basically a woman canada goose alternative uk on her period can cause hunting tools to lose their ability to function. Snares won catch prey, arrows are inaccurate, etc. There was a whole belief system around women becoming involved with certain male tasks, and espcially so when on their period. So it makes sense why the tradition of isolation during this part of the month was held on to for so long, it would have been taught to these women from a young age, and may have been something they watched all their female relatives do. Add to this matrilineal descent and often matrilocal residence, and you can see why some customs associated with females may have been far more engrained than others.

This may be too broad. I am assuming here that the social, political, and economic roles or harbors, port cities, and lighthouses, etc. were similar in different Eurasian cultures, or at least had significant overlap. I do not have the necessary expertise to know whether this is true.

I am not able to speak for all of the Americas, but north of Mexico we really do not see much that would be considered a port in the Old World. This is for a few reasons, however it is really not possible to say why something did not occur when we study the past.

I think it is important to remember that you cannot solve a problem you do not have. Native Americans did not build lighthouses and ports because they had no reason to. The rivers and waterways of inland North America were basically the canada goose outlet montreal address highways of the pre Columbian world, and honestly are even still used in some instances. Ports are a great way to get large numbers of items from point A to point B over a large body of water. They also help when a centralized power wants to profit and control the exchange of resources. We just do not see that in this part of the world, or at least not on a scale to warrant a port. A dugout canoe is an excellent way to transport goods in North America, and something that can be done by a small number of a people fairly easily. The maritime infrastructure you list requires a lot of steps to be completed prior to someone deciding to construct it. We just do not see the need for that in pre Columbian North America, it is far easier to travel by river or by foot than it would have been to construct a maritime port.

A lighthouse is only canada goose outlet near me needed if you have massive ships that need advance warning of shorelines or other hazards. Canoes are far easier to steer and are built to be used in more shallow waters. A harbor is great for attracting large vessels in need of rest and a suitable location to shield their ships from the open ocean. Canoes can stop at any point along a shoreline of a river or lake. A port community develops around the potential to earn resources becoming involved in maritime practices. A canoe can be pulled ashore at really any point along a river, no port required. To add to this, a river drainage basin allows for a number of routes to be taken to transport items from one area to another which makes a centralized point of control harder to justify.

To sum up, we do not see the infrastructure because it really was not needed as a river is a pretty efficient way to transport items.

Hi, sorry for coming across this so late! Okay so for starters, looking at when a culture came about is a dangerous game to play. Urban centers take a variety of factors to form, so comparing canada goose outlet miami when one formed to when another formed is like comparing apples to oranges.

Cahokia is unique in that it was built up fairly quickly, many refer to this as the bang We see people living in what would become Cahokia for many centuries prior, but https://www.thebookstop.biz around 900 1000 AD we see things begin to rapidly change. We not only see the population increase, but also major changes in settlement layout. This may sound mundane, but from the archaeological record it appears that canada goose outlet new york whoever was planning the construction of Cahokia managed to convince the people living there to tear down and rebuild their communities for a larger vision. From what we can see, lots of people from across the region came to live in Cahokia, so really there is no one culture we can point to as the origin of Middle Mississippian groups. Some elements (like Black Drink) come from the south, we see mound construction that is common across the midwest, and other elements from really all directions. Cahokia was a blend of many cultures, and that is part of the reason why is so complicated to study.

As to why it collapsed how it did, I would argue it did not collapse at all. From what we can tell, it kind of fizzled out with many residents of Cahokia moving to other communities. Interesting enough, we see some of these people try to recreate elements of life from Cahokia at their new homes, which would indicate that they still carried with them cultural concepts that were part of life at Cahokia. These people may have still felt apart of the cultural or spiritual life at Cahokia, but decided they no longer could live there. So it did not really collapse, but instead appears to have stopped being a location that people wanted to live in. Personally, I think this is what makes Cahokia so unique. We get a rapid development over the course of a generation, and suddenly we have canada goose gilet black friday a city of 20,000+ people that has a major influence on half the contient. Then as quickly as it grew, it seems to lose this hold it had over so many people. If we want to get speculative, this really feels like their may have been some very charismatic leaders who were able to convince others to join their community. These could have been powerful leaders, canada goose outlet legit or even a religious leader who was able to build up a reputation in the region. All speculation, but the rapid build up in power leads to some fascinating hypotheticals.

Sorry if I got a bit off track, but hopefully you can see that Cahokia is hard to compare to other cities in this part of the world. Cahokia is unique in that it comes out of the blue, suddenly we have this massive concentration of people living in a way that has really never been seen in this part of the Americas. While there had been other large communities, none came close to the sheer size of Cahokia. To put it in perspective, at the site I worked at at Cahokia, we had projectile points from the plains, lithic materials from Wisconsin, copper from Lake Superior, mica from the Carolinas, quartz from Oklahoma, and pottery that was local. All in three structures, and this is just a small fraction of the site. But to the eye, it appeared that we were in just an empty field with little to offer.

So to sum up, Cahokia was very canada goose outlet unique for this part of the world. It was made up of many cultures and peoples, so it is impossible to really say canada goose clearance uk who directly became the Mississippians. Many groups probably factored into this. Cahokia was really not any less stable than other communities, it may have been that people just decided to leave for whatever reason as opposed to some horrible event destroying the city itself.

Okay so I am going to break this down into a few parts to best tackle this. Fair warning, very few of the cultures I study would have directly been impacted by full fledged hurricanes, but luckily their are some key similarities between many of the beliefs surrounding storms.

So for starters, what we need to keep in mind is that many of these cultures had seasonal movements, they would travel to various locations as the seasons changed to best take advantage of the changing ecosystem. For many groups, this meant that they lived in structures that were intended to be temporary, meaning they could be abandoned fairly quickly if need be. However, I was able to find some accounts from tribes in Florida that describe how they would survive storms in the past. Essentially, they would leave the area if they could, aiming to relocate inland to locations that would have avoided the worst of the flooding. They also describe how they would take shelter by taking getting low canada goose outlet mall to the ground, and covering themselves with sturdier aspects of their homes, such as the roof. Kind of like how we are taught to survive a tornado if we are on the road, get out of your car and into a ditch while covering your head with whatever you can. Not a perfect solution, but you can see how it would work. Take that with a grain of salt as it is someone else personal story of how they would survive storms, but I think it does help in some way.

The next part is how these people may have viewed canada goose discount uk these storms. These would have been supernatural events to many of the cultures experiencing them. In fact, the word comes from a Spanish spelling of a Taino belief. The Taino lived among various Caribbean Islands, and had a complex belief system surrounding hurricanes and storms in general. Essentially, a deity controlled the winds, and others would attempt to curry favor with this deity by giving it gifts. If these failed to canada goose outlet washington dc please the deity, they would unleash rains, winds and floods on the other deities. Honestly, it is a complex belief system that I am not as familiar with, but a simple summary would be that hurricanes are a result of factors outside of a person control. This is a fairly common belief across North America, in the Midwest storms were seen as battles between Thunderbirds and Water Panthers. But to best understand this, you need to view the world as these cultures would have. In many Native American world views, the cosmos can be divided into three worlds or realms: the upper, middle and lower. The upper world is the realm of the most powerful deities in these belief systems, often shown as avian creatures and also associated with winds and thunder. The middle canada goose outlet world is where humans and other terrestrial animals are, it is the world we walk upon and exist in. The lower world is beneath the water, and the deities within it are often feared but respected. These include water panthers and water serpents, beings that were viewed as quick to anger and sort of vengeful. It might appear that this watery realm is a bit like the western ideas of hell or the underworld, but it is important to note that in many Native American stories life cannot exist without beings from this watery world. As in many Old World creation stories, the earth itself is often raised from a watery world by creatures like muskrats, animals who are often see on land and in water.

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